Brief Persian History or Persian Literature

Widespread Description

Persian historic earlier might be going a few of the historic histories of the world. It produced quite a few the classical and classy poet, who labored day and evening for its survival. Persian formally has spoken in Iran, Afghanistan (Dari) and Tajikistan. Subsequently, higher than 110 million Persian talking individuals on the planet.

The Origin Persian Language

The Persian language might be going one in every of many sweetest language on the planet. It was an Indo-European tongue with shut similarity with the oldest language Sanskrit and Avestan ( the language utilized in holy books of Zoroastrian’s). The language developed in Pars after the autumn of Achaemenian’s authorities. This language repeatedly used there from Pahlavi interval to Sassanian interval. The books and completely completely different literature of this period are very uncommon, nonetheless, Ferdowsi (a famend Persian poet) outlined it in a greater approach in his e-book (Shah Namaeh-e-Ferdowsi).

Impact of Arabic Language

Arab conquests have conquered Pars and environment. They began rehabilitation all through the home for the welfare of most individuals. Subsequently, the Arabic language declared because of the official language. They began their religious and tutorial schooling all through the Arabic language. Nonetheless, Pahlavi language was spoken in non-public life. The Arab conquests dominated over Pars for a century and a half. On this method, a great deal of Arabic phrases emerged in Pahlavi and a mannequin new language obtained proper right here into being which frequently referred to as Persian.

After fall of Arab rulers, Arabic continued in Iran at small scale due to the choice very important discovering out language Latin was utilized in Europe. On this method, the Arabic often decreased. Regardless of the particulars that well-known religious school college students and Muslim scientists Abu Ali Sina (Avicenna), Al-Beroni, Rhazes, Al Ghazali and a great deal of completely completely different have been furthermore utilizing Arabic. Persian language developed quickly and alter into the automotive of literature. Furthermore, it unfold throughout the path of the neighboring nations. Persian poets labored rather a lot for its promotion and the ruling class of sub-continent takes eager curiosity in Persian poetry. Mughal emperor Akbar undertake Persian as an official language.

Curiosity of Poets in Promotion of Persian Language

Persian school college students took the eager curiosity in selling of Persian language and make it straightforward for readers. Furthermore, Persian poets have furthermore carried out an very important place in its promotion. Abu Abdullah Jaffar ibn-e-Muhammad Roudaki (born in 858 CE in Panjakent, Tajikistan and died in 941 CE) and Abu Mansoor Muhammad ibn-e -Ahmed Daqiqi Tusi (born in Tus, Iran) are primarily basically essentially the most distinguished Persian poets. Roudaki is usually usually referred to as the primary Persian poet.

The Ghaznavid and early Seljuq Durations

Sultan Mahmood Ghaznavi was a courageous Muslim king, who loves with school college students and eminent personalities. At about 4 hundred poets and eminent individuals have been associated alongside alongside along with his workplace (DURBAR). Primarily basically essentially the most notable poet of his presidency was Ansari (born in 961 at Balkh) Ferdowsi (born in 940 in a village Paj, close to town of Tus, Khurasan and died in 1020). Ferdowsi wrote Shahnamah in 25 years which comprise full Persian historic earlier. Nonetheless, Farrukhi, Manouchehri and Asadi have been furthermore well-known poets of Sultan Mahmood Ghaznavi. Sultan Mahmood Ghaznavi served his nation all through the subject of schooling. He established quite a few libraries in every nook of his kingdom. Al Biruni was basically essentially the most well-liked prose creator of Ghaznavid interval, who wrote “Chronology of Historic Nations” in Arabic.

Saljuqi Interval

Saljuq interval is the second classical interval of Persian literature. It was the golden age of Persian prose and poetry in Persian historic earlier. Kemiya-e-Saadat (The Alchemy of Happiness) written by Imam Ghazali is one basically essentially the most well-liked prose of this period. Numerous of the famend books are as beneath:-

Siasat Nama. The e-book has been written by Nizam ul Mulk, who was a minister of Alp Arsalan and Malik Shah. It comprise full work of presidency and willpower of political factors.

Qabus Nama. Baheeqi has outlined the historic earlier of Ghaznavid interval on this e-book.

Chahar Maqala. Nizami wrote Chahar Maqala means 4 discourses.

Kalila wa Dimna. Nasar Ullah has written this e-book. It comprise the animal fables of Indian origin.

• Nasir-e-Khosrow.

Classical Persian Poets

Abu Moeen Hamid Uddin ibn Khosrow al-Qubadiani or Nasir-e-Khosrow (born in 1004 in village Qubadiyon, Bactria, Khorasan and died in 1088 at Yamgan, Afghanistan) was one completely different clever creator of classical Persian historic earlier, who wrote higher than fifteen books. Nonetheless, lower than half of those books have survived and accessible now. One among his well-known e-book is Safar Nama, which incorporates the historic earlier of journey throughout the path of Egypt. He was an Ismaili Shia sect scholar, traveler and thinker. His poetry and prose are well-known for purity of language and dazzling of technical experience. The poems of Nasir are prolonged odes. Nasir wrote poems on religious and moral subjects.

Correctly-known scholar Mirza Muhammad Qazvini says that set up of Nasir Khosrow might also added all through the report of prime Persian poets i.e. Ferdowsi, Omar Khayyam, Anwari, Romi, Sheikh Saadi and Hafiz Sheerazi. Numerous of the completely completely different most distinguished Persian poets are Ansari, Abu Mentioned, Khawaqani, Nizami, Attar and Baba Tahir Uryian.

Poet of Drive Concept

Omar Khayyam (Ghayas Uddin Abul Fateh Omer Ibrahim Khayyam Nishapuri) was born in 18 May 1048 at Nishapur, Khorasan and died in four December 1131. He was an very important scholar, mathematician, astronomer and poet. Khayyam has overtly criticized religious factors and personalities in his poetry. He has all the time referred and hailed himself as an very important Sufi. The primary theme of his poetry is hedonism tinged with a light-weight disappointment, the flexibility of future and supreme ignorance / unawareness of human beings. Subsequently, his poetry was largely uncared for in Iran until the best of nineteenth century on this account. Nonetheless, Iranian realized the significance of Khayyam’s poetry when Fitzgerald translated it all through the west.

Linked Classical Poets

Sanai is one completely different good poet of classical Persian historic earlier who adopted the form of Nasir-e-Khosrow. Muaizi, Anwari and Khaqani are the choice star poets of classical Persian historic earlier. They’ve written pretty a few books in Persian language. Most of their poetry comprise on panegyric. The form of Anwari is relatively sturdy from all completely completely different the poets of comparable interval. Nonetheless, Khaqani is additional mannered, who revered by all. He used technical language with good experience in his poetry. All these poets have been widespread in Iran however rather a lot a lot much less appreciated all through the west on account of their technical language.

Nizami (Jamal Uddin Abu Muhammad Ilyas ibn Yousaf ibn Zaki) is one completely different shiny star and Sunni poet in classical Persian historic earlier. He was born in 1140 at Ganja, Caucasus and died in 1209. He was a creative poet and generally known as specialist of Khamsah or Quintet (assortment of 5 romantic poetry). Nizami wrote a mystical epic “Makhzan ul Asrar” or Treasure Home of Secrets and techniques and strategies and strategies, romantic poetry “Khosro-o-Shireen” and Laila-o-Majnoon, story of excellent Alexander “Sikandar Namah” and Haft Paikar which comprise the historic earlier of Bahram Gur. These books are very talked-about in Iran because of its romantic, vibrant and distinctive writing type.

Abu Hamid bin Abu Bakar Ibrahim alias Farid Uddin Attar (born in 1145 in Nishapur and died in 1220 Khorasan). He was an very important Sufi, religious and didactic poet in classical Persian historic earlier. Historians are on the opinion that he was born in all probability in 1136 (not conform). Manteq-ut-Tair is one in all his hottest e-book. Fitzgerald translated this e-book as “The Hen Parliament”. Attar has outlined the story of birds symbolically for union of human beings with God in an very important pleasing. He gave an event of Semorgh (chook) in his e-book, who have to make their king.

Persian Historic earlier in Thirteenth Century

Ashraf Uddin Mosleh Uddin Saadi generally known as Sheikh Saadi and Maulana Jalal Uddin Romi have been basically essentially the most well-liked Sunni Sufi poets of 13 century in Persian historic earlier. Sheikh Saadi was born in Shiraz metropolis of Iran. His actual date of provide is just not acknowledged, nonetheless, the trendy historic earlier writers of Iran says that Saadi was born in 1184 AD and died in between 691 to 694 AH. The historian says that Sheikh Saadi has spent his life in 4 components. Sheikh Saadi studied for 30 years, then he travelled the world for 30 years, then he spent 30 years in writing of books and poetry and the remaining life was spent in recluse and theosophy.

Jalal uddin Rumi

Jalal Uddin Muhammad Rumi generally known as Maulan Rumi was born on 30 September 1207 in Balkh (presently a northern province of Afghanistan) and died on 17 December 1273. He belongs to an Arab clan, who’ve been widespread for his or her religious firms. “MASNAVI MAANAVI” was his well-known e-book which was achieved in ten years. He acknowledged Persian, Arabic, Turkish and Greek languages.

Hameed Ullah Mostofi was furthermore a famend creator of Persian historic earlier. He wrote historic earlier and geography. “Zafar Namah” or E-book of Victory is his famend e-book which contains of 75,000 couplets. Nasir Uddin Tusi is often a extensively recognized Persian poet who wrote on philosophy and logic. The choice three widespread poets of thirteenth century are Iraqi who wrote a mystical and non secular e-book “LAMAAT” or Flashes.

Abdul Hassan Yamin Uddin Khosrow alias Ameer Khosrow was born in 1253 at Patiyali Sultanate Dehli, presently Uterpardesh India and died October 1325 in Delhi India. Khosrow wrote in Persian, Arabic and Hindi languages. He was well-known for his candy language and likewise generally known as as “The parrot of India”. In the end a satirist poet Zakani shall be primarily basically essentially the most favorite poet of thirteenth century.

The Fifteenth Century onwards

Fifteenth century of Persian historic earlier is wealthy in provision of notable historians and poets. Nizam Uddin Shami the creator of Zafar Namah (a historic earlier of Taimur), Yazdi, Hafiz Abru, Khafi, Dawlat Shah and Mir Khand (creator of Rauzat-us-Safa or Yard of Purity) Dawani (creator of Akhlaq-e-Jalali), Kashafi (creator of Kalila wa Dimna moreover generally known as Anwar-e-Subaili or the Lights of Canopus). The distinguished poets of fifteenth century are Sufi Maghribi, Qasim-e-Anwar, Katibi, Nemat Ullah Wali and Jami.

Noor Uddin Abdul Rahman Jami is taken into account final eminent determine of classical Persian literature in Persian historic earlier. He was born in 1414 at Nishapur, Khorasan and died on 19 November 1492 in Herat, Afghanistan. Jami wrote higher than 45 useful books. Numerous of his well-known books are “Baharistan”, “Yousaf-wa-Zulaikha”, “Suleman-wa-Absal”, “Lawaih”, the dear pearl, and “Laila-wa-Majnoon”. Persian poetry fallen into decline after the sudden dying of Jami. Jame was an very important loss for Persian poetry.

Hatif was one completely different promising romantic and historic poet in Persian historic earlier. He was the promising nephew of Maulana Rumi, who deeply impressed from him. Utterly completely different followers of Rumi have been Asifi, Fighani (generally known as “the little Hafiz”, Ahli and the Sufi poet Hilali. Khairati, Qasmimi, Kashi, Shani, Fasihi and Shafai are the well-known Persian poets of sixteenth century.

Distinguished Poets

Mirza Muhammad Ali Saeb Tabraizi, the subsequent distinguished and educated poet of seventeenth century who thought of largest Persian poet after Maulana Jami in Persian historic earlier. A shiny minded and distinctive Persian poet in Persian historic earlier. He was born at Isfahan, Iran in 1602 and died in 1677. Saeb furthermore preserve associated with courtroom (DARBAR) of Mughal emperor Shah Jehan in India however quickly returned to Iran and joined the courtroom of Shah Abbas II. He labored exhausting on relate of updated poetry with outdated varieties and created a mannequin new college.

Azhar is one in all his follower in eighteenth century, who was well-known for large prose writing. He wrote Atesh Kadah (the place of fire-worship), which comprise biographies of higher than eight hundred poets. Azhar furthermore wrote a Divan and a romantic epic. He wrote rather a lot on historic earlier and autobiographies of poets and monarchs / rulers.

Saba was the laureate poet of second Qajar Irani emperor Fateh Ali Shah, who dominated Iran from June 1779 to October 1834. Saba was the eminent poet of nineteenth century in Persian historic earlier. He wrote a divan and Shahan Shah Namah. Mirza Habib Ullah Shirazi alias Qaani is one completely different clever, wonderful and well-known poet of Qajar interval in Persian historic earlier. He was born in 1223 AH in Shiraz and died in Tehran in 1270 AH, who wrote famend e-book titled PARESHAN. Qaani furthermore is acutely aware of Arabic, English, French languages together with Persian language.

Trendy Persian Poets or Revival of Persian Literature

Revival of Persian literature acknowledged from early twentieth century. Prince Iraj Mirza has participated rather a lot in its revival. Iraj was an very important and gifted Persian poet in Persian historic earlier. He was born in October 1874 in Tabraiz, the capital Azarbaijan (presently east Azarbaijan) and died in March 1926. Iraj Mirza labored for freedom of women. The choice distinguished Persian poets of twentieth are Adib, Bahar, Lahuti, Shahryar, Aref and the poetess Parvin E’tesami.

The Persian poets of most stylish interval Nima Yoshij, Raadi, Khanlari, Islami, Gulchin, Ahmed Shamlou, Mehdi Akhavan Product gross sales, Masood Farzad, Sohrab Sepehri, Fereedon, Moshiri, Sadiq Hadayat, Samad Behrangi and Sadiq Choubak. The modern distinguished lady poets of updated interval are Forough Farrukhzad.

Source by Muhammad Ishaq

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